Moisturizing the Skin: Basic Principles and Best Products

For the normal functioning of the skin, it must be optimally moisturized. The balance between moisture retention and evaporation is regulated by the complex dynamic structure known as the epidermal barrier. This barrier is formed by corneocytes, cells of the stratum corneum, arranged like bricks, with the spaces between them filled with a lipid emulsion consisting of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. Additionally, sebaceous and sweat glands produce a hydro-lipidic lubricant that helps the epidermis retain moisture. Finally, the natural moisturizing factor (a complex of amino acids, urea, lactic acid, and other hygroscopic substances) aids in binding and retaining water molecules on the skin's surface. Well-moisturized skin is resilient, elastic, well-protected, and appears smooth, even, and velvety.

Aggressive environmental factors, such as harsh foaming agents in cosmetics, can disrupt the skin's hydro-lipidic mantle. Moreover, with age, sebaceous gland activity decreases, corneocytes mature more slowly, resulting in less synthesis of epidermal lipids. Consequently, the epidermal barrier becomes more permeable, leading to increased water evaporation and skin dehydration. Pathogenic agents easily penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin through microcracks, causing heightened sensitivity, a sensation of tightness, and itching. The skin's surface becomes uneven, flaky, and poorly accommodates decorative cosmetics.

There are several ways to hydrate the skin. Plant-based emollients (oils and waxes) can soften the epidermal surface, replenish the deficit of epidermal lipids, and "patch up" defects in the barrier layer, reducing water evaporation through the epidermis and addressing dryness issues. Shea and cocoa butter, oils such as argan, olive, almond, hemp, and avocado, among others, are structurally close to skin lipids and possess excellent protective properties. The phytosterols in plant oils structurally replace epidermal cholesterol. Often, moisturizing products include plant squalane, similar to the sebum squalane.

COSMOETICA Face and Neck Cream MiBella

Moisturizers with adsorbent properties attract moisture from the air if the humidity is sufficiently high and redistribute it from subepidermal layers. The application of cosmetics with such components immediately creates a pleasant feeling of hydration. Popular hygroscopic moisturizers include urea, lactic acid, plant glycerin, and polysaccharides.

NUMIS MED Day Cream UREA 5%

COSNATURE Allround Face Cream Pomegranate

Natural gel-based moisturizers are effective; their large molecules retain water well, forming a moist, breathable lattice on the skin's surface. Skin under such a cover feels exceptionally comfortable. Well-known ingredients in this category include compounds of hyaluronic acid, extracts of aloe and other succulent plants capable of withstanding prolonged dry spells, and seaweeds adapted to drying during low tides.

4 ELEMENTS FOR LIFE 24h Cream

SPEICK Thermal Sensitiv Hyaluronic Acid Serum


 

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